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Stress within the base must be less than the yield stress of the material or the crane will fail. There are four principal types of mobile cranes: A truck -mounted crane has two parts: These are mated together through a turntable, allowing the upper to swing from side to side.
These modern hydraulic truck cranes are usually single-engine machines, with the same engine powering the undercarriage and the crane.
The upper is usually powered via hydraulics run through the turntable from the pump mounted on the lower.
In older model designs of hydraulic truck cranes, there were two engines. One in the lower pulled the crane down the road and ran a hydraulic pump for the outriggers and jacks.
The one in the upper ran the upper through a hydraulic pump of its own. Many older operators favor the two-engine system due to leaking seals in the turntable of aging newer design cranes.
Hiab invented the world's first hydraulic truck mounted crane in Generally, these cranes are able to travel on highways, eliminating the need for special equipment to transport the crane unless weight or other size constrictions are in place such as local laws.
If this is the case, most larger cranes are equipped with either special trailers to help spread the load over more axles or are able to disassemble to meet requirements.
An example is counterweights. Often a crane will be followed by another truck hauling the counterweights that are removed for travel. In addition some cranes are able to remove the entire upper.
However, this is usually only an issue in a large crane and mostly done with a conventional crane such as a Link-Belt HC When working on the job site, outriggers are extended horizontally from the chassis then vertically to level and stabilize the crane while stationary and hoisting.
Many truck cranes have slow-travelling capability a few miles per hour while suspending a load. Great care must be taken not to swing the load sideways from the direction of travel, as most anti-tipping stability then lies in the stiffness of the chassis suspension.
Most cranes of this type also have moving counterweights for stabilization beyond that provided by the outriggers. Loads suspended directly aft are the most stable, since most of the weight of the crane acts as a counterweight.
Factory-calculated charts or electronic safeguards are used by crane operators to determine the maximum safe loads for stationary outriggered work as well as on-rubber loads and travelling speeds.
Truck cranes range in lifting capacity from about Although most only rotate about degrees, the more expensive truck mounted cranes can turn a full degrees.
A rough terrain crane has a boom mounted on an undercarriage atop four rubber tires that is designed for off-road pick-and-carry operations.
Outriggers are used to level and stabilize the crane for hoisting. These telescopic cranes are single-engine machines, with the same engine powering the undercarriage and the crane, similar to a crawler crane.
The engine is usually mounted in the undercarriage rather than in the upper, as with crawler crane. Most have 4 wheel drive and 4 wheel steering for traversing tighter and slicker terrain than a standard truck crane, with less site prep.
A crawler crane has its boom mounted on an undercarriage fitted with a set of crawler tracks that provide both stability and mobility.
Crawler cranes range in lifting capacity from about 40 to 3, short tons The main advantage of a crawler crane is its ready mobility and use, since the crane is able to operate on sites with minimal improvement and stable on its tracks without outriggers.
Wide tracks spread the weight out over a great area and are far better than wheels at traversing soft ground without sinking in.
A crawler crane is also capable of traveling with a load. Its main disadvantage is its weight, making it difficult and expensive to transport.
Typically a large crawler must be disassembled at least into boom and cab and moved by trucks, rail cars or ships to its next location.
Floating cranes are used mainly in bridge building and port construction, but they are also used for occasional loading and unloading of especially heavy or awkward loads on and off ships.
Floating cranes have also been used to salvage sunken ships. Crane vessels are often used in offshore construction. The largest revolving cranes can be found on SSCV Thialf , which has two cranes with a capacity of 7, tonnes 7, short tons ; 6, long tons each.
For 50 years, the largest such crane was "Herman the German" at the Long Beach Naval Shipyard, one of three constructed by Hitler's Germany and captured in the war.
The crane was sold to the Panama Canal in where it is now known as the "Titan. An all-terrain crane is a hybrid combining the roadability of a truck-mounted and on-site maneuverability of a rough-terrain crane.
It can both travel at speed on public roads and maneuver on rough terrain at the job site using all-wheel and crab steering. A pick and carry crane is similar to a mobile crane in that is designed to travel on public roads; however, Pick and Carry cranes have no stabiliser legs or outriggers and are designed to lift the load and carry it to its destination, within a small radius, then be able to drive to the next job.
Pick and Carry cranes are popular in Australia where large distances are encountered between job sites.
One popular manufacturer in Australia was Franna, who have since been bought by Terex, and now all Pick and Carry cranes are commonly referred to as "Frannas" even though they may be made by other manufacturers.
Nearly every medium and large sized crane company in Australia has at least one and many companies have fleets of these cranes. The capacity range is usually ten to twenty tonnes maximum lift, although this is much less at the tip of the boom.
Pick and Carry cranes have displaced the work usually completed by smaller truck cranes as the set-up time is much quicker.
Many steel fabrication yards also use Pick and Carry cranes as they can "walk" with fabricated steel sections and place these where required with relative ease.
A sidelifter crane is a road-going truck or semi-trailer , able to hoist and transport ISO standard containers. Container lift is done with parallel crane-like hoists, which can lift a container from the ground or from a railway vehicle.
A carry deck crane is a small 4 wheel crane with a degree rotating boom placed right in the centre and an operators cab located at one end under this boom.
The rear section houses the engine and the area above the wheels is a flat deck. Very much an American invention the Carry deck can hoist a load in a confined space and then load it on the deck space around the cab or engine and subsequently move to another site.
The Carry Deck principle is the American version of the pick and carry crane and both allow the load to be moved by the crane over short distances.
Telescopic handlers are like forklift trucks that have a telescoping extendable boom like a crane. Early telescopic handlers only lifted in one direction and did not rotate;  however, several of the manufacturers have designed telescopic handlers that rotate degrees through a turntable and these machines look almost identical to the Rough Terrain Crane.
These machines are often used to handle pallets of bricks and install frame trusses on many new building sites and they have eroded much of the work for small telescopic truck cranes.
Many of the world's armed forces have purchased telescopic handlers and some of these are the much more expensive fully rotating types. Their off-road capability and their on site versatility to unload pallets using forks, or lift like a crane make them a valuable piece of machinery.
A railroad crane has flanged wheels for use on railroads. The simplest form is a crane mounted on a flatcar. More capable devices are purpose-built.
Different types of crane are used for maintenance work , recovery operations and freight loading in goods yards and scrap handling facilities.
Aerial crane or 'Sky cranes' usually are helicopters designed to lift large loads. Helicopters are able to travel to and lift in areas that are difficult to reach by conventional cranes.
They can lift anything within their lifting capacity, cars, boats, swimming pools, etc. They also perform disaster relief after natural disasters for clean-up, and during wild-fires they are able to carry huge buckets of water to extinguish fires.
Some aerial cranes, mostly concepts, have also used lighter-than air aircraft, such as airships.
Exchanging mobility for the ability to carry greater loads and reach greater heights due to increased stability, these types of cranes are characterised by the fact that their main structure does not move during the period of use.
However, many can still be assembled and disassembled. The structures basically are fixed in one place. Tower cranes are a modern form of balance crane that consist of the same basic parts.
Fixed to the ground on a concrete slab and sometimes attached to the sides of structures , tower cranes often give the best combination of height and lifting capacity and are used in the construction of tall buildings.
The base is then attached to the mast which gives the crane its height. Further, the mast is attached to the slewing unit gear and motor that allows the crane to rotate.
On top of the slewing unit there are three main parts which are: The long horizontal jib is the part of the crane that carries the load.
The counter-jib carries a counterweight, usually of concrete blocks, while the jib suspends the load to and from the center of the crane.
The crane operator either sits in a cab at the top of the tower or controls the crane by radio remote control from the ground. In the first case the operator's cab is most usually located at the top of the tower attached to the turntable, but can be mounted on the jib, or partway down the tower.
The lifting hook is operated by the crane operator using electric motors to manipulate wire rope cables through a system of sheaves. The hook is located on the long horizontal arm to lift the load which also contains its motor.
In order to hook and unhook the loads, the operator usually works in conjunction with a signaller known as a 'dogger', 'rigger' or 'swamper'.
They are most often in radio contact, and always use hand signals. The rigger or dogger directs the schedule of lifts for the crane, and is responsible for the safety of the rigging and loads.
Tower cranes are used extensively in construction and other industry to hoist and move materials. There are many types of tower cranes.
Although they are different in type, the main parts are the same, as follows:. A tower crane is usually assembled by a telescopic jib mobile crane of greater reach also see "self-erecting crane" below and in the case of tower cranes that have risen while constructing very tall skyscrapers, a smaller crane or derrick will often be lifted to the roof of the completed tower to dismantle the tower crane afterwards, which may be more difficult than the installation.
Each model and distinctive style of tower crane has a predetermined lifting chart that can be applied to any radii available depending on its configuration.
Similar to a mobile crane, a tower crane may lift an object of far greater mass closer to its center of rotation than at its maximum radius.
An operator manipulates several levers and pedals to control each function of the crane. Generally a type of pedestrian operated tower crane.
Self erecting tower cranes are transported as a single unit and can be assembled by a qualified technician without the assistance of a larger mobile crane.
They are bottom slewing cranes that stand on outriggers, have no counter jib, have their counter weights and ballast at the base of the mast, can not climb themselves, have a reduced capacity to standard tower cranes, and seldom have an operator's cabin.
In some cases, smaller self-erecting tower cranes may have axles permanently fitted to the tower section to make maneuvering the crane onsite easier.
For a video of a crane getting taller, see here: For another animation of such a crane in use see this video: A telescopic crane has a boom that consists of a number of tubes fitted one inside the other.
A hydraulic cylinder or other powered mechanism extends or retracts the tubes to increase or decrease the total length of the boom.
These types of booms are often used for short term construction projects, rescue jobs, lifting boats in and out of the water, etc.
The relative compactness of telescopic booms makes them adaptable for many mobile applications. A telescopic tower crane has a telescopic mast and often a superstructure jib on top so that it functions as a tower crane.
Some telescopic tower cranes also have a telescopic jib. The "hammerhead", or giant cantilever , crane is a fixed- jib crane consisting of a steel-braced tower on which revolves a large, horizontal, double cantilever ; the forward part of this cantilever or jib carries the lifting trolley, the jib is extended backwards in order to form a support for the machinery and counterbalancing weight.
In addition to the motions of lifting and revolving, there is provided a so-called "racking" motion, by which the lifting trolley, with the load suspended, can be moved in and out along the jib without altering the level of the load.
Such horizontal movement of the load is a marked feature of later crane design. The design of Hammerkran evolved first in Germany around the turn of the 19th century and was adopted and developed for use in British shipyards to support the battleship construction program from to The ability of the hammerhead crane to lift heavy weights was useful for installing large pieces of battleships such as armour plate and gun barrels.
Giant cantilever cranes were also installed in naval shipyards in Japan and in the United States. The British government also installed a giant cantilever crane at the Singapore Naval Base and later a copy of the crane was installed at Garden Island Naval Dockyard in Sydney These cranes provided repair support for the battle fleet operating far from Great Britain.
Among the sixty built in the world, few remain; seven in England and Scotland of about fifteen worldwide. The Titan Clydebank is one of the 4 Scottish cranes on the Clydebank and preserved as a tourist attraction.
Normally a crane with a hinged jib will tend to have its hook also move up and down as the jib moves or luffs.
A level luffing crane is a crane of this common design, but with an extra mechanism to keep the hook level when luffing.
An overhead crane , also known as a bridge crane, is a type of crane where the hook-and-line mechanism runs along a horizontal beam that itself runs along two widely separated rails.
Often it is in a long factory building and runs along rails along the building's two long walls. It is similar to a gantry crane. Overhead cranes typically consist of either a single beam or a double beam construction.
These can be built using typical steel beams or a more complex box girder type. Pictured on the right is a single bridge box girder crane with the hoist and system operated with a control pendant.
Double girder bridge are more typical when needing heavier capacity systems from 10 tons and above. The advantage of the box girder type configuration results in a system that has a lower deadweight yet a stronger overall system integrity.
Also included would be a hoist to lift the items, the bridge, which spans the area covered by the crane, and a trolley to move along the bridge.
The most common overhead crane use is in the steel industry. At every step of the manufacturing process, until it leaves a factory as a finished product, steel is handled by an overhead crane.
Raw materials are poured into a furnace by crane, hot steel is stored for cooling by an overhead crane, the finished coils are lifted and loaded onto trucks and trains by overhead crane, and the fabricator or stamper uses an overhead crane to handle the steel in his factory.
The automobile industry uses overhead cranes for handling of raw materials. Smaller workstation cranes handle lighter loads in a work-area, such as CNC mill or saw.
Almost all paper mills use bridge cranes for regular maintenance requiring removal of heavy press rolls and other equipment. The bridge cranes are used in the initial construction of paper machines because they facilitate installation of the heavy cast iron paper drying drums and other massive equipment, some weighing as much as 70 tons.
In many instances the cost of a bridge crane can be largely offset with savings from not renting mobile cranes in the construction of a facility that uses a lot of heavy process equipment.
A gantry crane has a hoist in a fixed machinery house or on a trolley that runs horizontally along rails, usually fitted on a single beam mono-girder or two beams twin-girder.
The crane frame is supported on a gantry system with equalized beams and wheels that run on the gantry rail, usually perpendicular to the trolley travel direction.
These cranes come in all sizes, and some can move very heavy loads, particularly the extremely large examples used in shipyards or industrial installations.
A special version is the container crane or "Portainer" crane, named by the first manufacturer , designed for loading and unloading ship-borne containers at a port.
Most container cranes are of this type. Located on the ships and boats, these are used for cargo operations or boat unloading and retrieval where no shore unloading facilities are available.
Most are diesel-hydraulic or electric-hydraulic. A jib crane is a type of crane where a horizontal member jib or boom , supporting a moveable hoist, is fixed to a wall or to a floor-mounted pillar.
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